Bonds

Bond Reports

Required Disclosures

S&P GLOBAL™ is used under license. The owner of this trademark is S&P Global Inc. or its affiliate, which are not affiliated with CFRA Research or the author of this content.

The data and information included in bond reports (the “Bond Report” and/or “Research Reports”) are generated by quantitative research models. Bond Reports may contain ratings data and analysts’ commentaries from S&P Global Ratings, an affiliate of S&P Global Market Intelligence, a division of S&P Global Inc. When using this report, investors are advised to consult the accompanying glossary of investment terms. Bond Reports are prepared by Accounting Research & Analytics, LLC d/b/a CFRA, which is not affiliated with S&P Global Ratings and/or S&P Global Inc. Bond Reports are generally updated on a daily basis.

Risk Disclosure:

In general the bond market is volatile, and fixed income securities carry interest rate risk. Investments are subject to investment risks including the possible loss of the principal amount invested. Bond investments may be subject, but not limited, to the following investment risks:

Credit and default risk – Corporate bonds are subject to credit risk. It’s important to pay attention to changes in the credit quality of the issuer, as less creditworthy issuers may be more likely to default on interest payments or principal repayment. If a bond issuer fails to make either a coupon or principal payment when they are due, or fails to meet some other provision of the bond indenture, it is said to be in default.

Market risk – Price volatility of corporate bonds increases with the length of the maturity and decreases as the size of the coupon increases. Changes in credit rating can also affect prices. If one of the major rating services lowers its credit rating for a particular issue, the price of that security usually declines.

Event risk – A bond’s payments are dependent on the issuer’s ability to generate cash flow. Unforeseen events could impact their ability to meet those commitments.

Call risk – Many corporate bonds are callable, which means they can be redeemed or paid off at the issuer’s discretion prior to maturity. Typically an issuer will call a bond when interest rates fall below the coupon rate potentially leaving investors with a loss in income and less favorable reinvestment options. Prior to purchasing a corporate bond, determine whether call provisions exist. An investors should ensure that the yield he/she is quoted includes the yield to the worst case in the event of a call.

Sector risk – Corporate bond issuers fall into four main sectors: industrial, financial, utilities, and transportation. Bonds in these economic sectors can be affected by a range of factors, including corporate events, consumer demand, changes in the economic cycle, changes in regulation, interest rate and commodity volatility, changes in overseas economic conditions, and currency fluctuations. Understanding the degree to which each sector can be influenced by these factors is the first step toward building a diversified bond portfolio.

Interest rate risk – If interest rates rise, the price of existing bonds usually declines. That’s because new bonds are likely to be issued with higher yields as interest rates increase, making the old or outstanding bonds less attractive. If interest rates decline, however, bond prices usually increase, which means an investor can sometimes sell a bond for more than they paid or a premium to face value, since other investors are willing to pay a premium for a bond with a higher interest payment. The longer a bond’s maturity, the greater the impact a change in interest rates can have on its price. If you’re holding a bond until maturity, interest rate risk is not a concern.

Government securities risk – The U.S. Treasury only backs in full all some obligations of the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities. Some obligations are backed only by the credit of the issuing agency or instrumentality, and in some cases there may be some risk of default by the issuer. The U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities cannot guarantee the market value of a security, only the timely payment of interest and principal when held to maturity. U.S government securities may increase or decrease in value based on global demand and changes in global economic conditions affect the demand for these securities.

Municipal securities risk – Public information available about municipal securities is in general limited and less available than that for corporate equities or bonds. Special factors, such as legislative changes, and state and local economic and business developments, may adversely affect the yield and/or value of the bond investments in municipal securities. Investments in municipal projects of a municipality or a state may impact the bond”s value, if economic, business or political conditions change for the municipality or state.

Foreign risk – In addition to the risks mentioned above, there are additional considerations for bonds issued by foreign governments and corporations. These bonds can experience greater volatility, due to increased political, regulatory, market, or economic risks. These risks are usually more pronounced in emerging markets.

About Bond Report Distributors

This content has been prepared by Accounting Research & Analytics, LLC and/or one of its affiliates. It is published and distributed by Accounting Research & Analytics, LLC d/b/a CFRA with the following exceptions: In the European Union/European Economic Area, the content is published and distributed by CFRA UK Limited (company number 08456139 registered in England & Wales with its registered office address at PO Box 698, Titchfield House, 69-85 Tabernacle Street, London, EC2A 4RR, United Kingdom)), which is regulated by the UK Financial Conduct Authority (No. 775151); in Malaysia, the content is published and distributed by CFRA MY Sdn Bhd (Company No. 683377-A) (formerly known as Standard & Poor’s Malaysia Sdn. Bhd), which is regulated by the Securities Commission Malaysia (License No. CMSL/A0181/2007).

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Notice to all jurisdictions

Where reports are made available in a language other than English and in the case of inconsistencies between the English and translated versions of a Research Report, the English version will control and supersede any ambiguities associated with any part or section of a Research Report that has been issued in a foreign language. Neither CFRA nor its affiliates guarantee the accuracy of the translation.

The content of this material and the opinions expressed herein are those of CFRA based upon publicly-available information that CFRA believes to be reliable and the opinions are subject to change without notice. This analysis has not been submitted to, nor received approval from, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission or any other regulatory body. While CFRA exercised due care in compiling this analysis, CFRA AND ALL RELATED ENTITIES SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, to the full extent permitted by law, regarding the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of this information and assumes no liability with respect to the consequences of relying on this information for investment or other purposes. No content (including ratings, credit-related analyses and data, valuations, model, software or other application or output therefrom) or any part thereof (Content) may be modified, reverse engineered, reproduced or distributed in any form by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of CFRA. The Content shall not be used for any unlawful or unauthorized purposes. CFRA and any third-party providers, as well as their directors, officers, shareholders, employees or agents do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or availability of the Content.

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This report is not intended to, and does not, constitute an offer or solicitation to buy and sell securities or engage in any investment activity. This report is for informational purposes only. Recommendations in this report are not made with respect to any particular investor or type of investor. Securities, financial instruments or strategies mentioned herein may not be suitable for all investors and this material is not intended for any specific investor and does not take into account an investor’s particular investment objectives, financial situations or needs. Investors should seek independent financial advice regarding the suitability and/or appropriateness of making an investment or implementing the investment strategies discussed in this document and should understand that statements regarding future prospects may not be realized. Investors should note that income from such investments, if any, may fluctuate and that the value of such investments may rise or fall. Accordingly, investors may receive back less than they originally invested. Investors should seek advice concerning any impact this investment may have on their personal tax position from their own tax advisor. Please note the publication date of this document. It may contain specific information that is no longer current and should not be used to make an investment decision. Unless otherwise indicated, there is no intention to update this document.

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Certain information in this report is provided by S&P Global, Inc. and/or its affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively “S&P Global”). Such information is subject to the following disclaimers and notices: “Copyright © 2018, S&P Global Market Intelligence (and its affiliates as applicable). All rights reserved. Nothing contained herein is investment advice and a reference to a particular investment or security, a credit rating or any observation concerning a security or investment provided by S&P Global is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold such investment or security or make any other investment decisions. This may contain information obtained from third parties, including ratings from credit ratings agencies. Reproduction and distribution of S&P Global’s information and third party content in any form is prohibited except with the prior written permission of S&P Global or the related third party, as applicable. Neither S&P Global nor its third party providers guarantee the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or availability of any information, including ratings, and are not responsible for any errors or omissions (negligent or otherwise), regardless of the cause, or for the results obtained from the use of such information or content. S&P GLOBAL AND ITS THIRD PARTY CONTENT PROVIDERS GIVE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE AND ALL S&P GLOBAL INFORMATION IS PROVIDED ON AN AS-IS BASIS. S&P GLOBAL AND ITS THIRD PARTY CONTENT PROVIDERS SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, EXEMPLARY, COMPENSATORY, PUNITIVE, SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, COSTS, EXPENSES, LEGAL FEES, OR LOSSES (INCLUDING LOST INCOME OR PROFITS AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS OR LOSSES CAUSED BY NEGLIGENCE) IN CONNECTION WITH ANY USE OF THEIR INFORMATION OR CONTENT, INCLUDING RATINGS. Credit ratings are statements of opinions and are not statements of fact or recommendations to purchase, hold or sell securities. They do not address the suitability of securities or the suitability of securities for investment purposes, and should not be relied on as investment advice.”

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For residents of the European Union/European Economic Area: Research reports are originally distributed by CFRA UK Limited (company number 08456139 registered in England & Wales with its registered office address at PO Box 698, Titchfield House, 69-85 Tabernacle Street, London, EC2A 4RR, United Kingdom). CFRA UK Limited is regulated by the UK Financial Conduct Authority (No. 775151).

For residents of Malaysia: Research reports are originally produced and distributed by CFRA MY Sdn Bhd (Company No. 683377-A) (formerly known as Standard & Poor’s Malaysia Sdn Bhd) (“CFRA Malaysia”). CFRA Malaysia is regulated by Securities Commission Malaysia (License No. CMSL/A0181/2007).

For residents of all other countries: Research reports are originally distributed Accounting Research & Analytics, LLC d/b/a CFRA.

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Michael Dowd is head of global account management at CFRA. He is responsible for leading a global team of dedicated account managers to deliver best-in-class service for CFRA clients, developing the go-to-market strategy for client accounts, and driving user adoption of CFRA research.

Prior to joining CFRA, Mike served as the Director of Client Services and a member of the Senior Management Team at SNL Financial before the firm was acquired by McGraw-Hill in 2015. Following the acquisition, he built a Global Renewal Operations Team at S&P Global to facilitate a shift to avalue-based commercial pricing model, and led successful Relationship Management Teams in the non-financial Corporate client segment.

Mike holds aBachelor of Science, Business Administration from the University of Vermont, and a Master of Business Administration from Union College, with a concentration in Finance and International Business.

Ken Leon is Director of Equity Research at CFRA, responsible for analytical research as well as client servicing. As a subject matter expert, his research industries include Diversified Banks and the Housing Market, with coverage of Homebuilding, Home Improvement Retail, Home Furnishings and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs).
Ken is a thought leader that provides ongoing in-depth research and communications to key customer segments. He is active with most media networks and leading print media, and is sought for his investment views on the large banks and housing market trends.
Ken previously held the position of Global Director of Research and Industry Analyst for S&P Global Market Intelligence. Prior to joining CFRA, Ken spent over two decades in equity research with research leadership responsibilities at ABN Amro, Bear Stearns, and Lehman Brothers. He was a three-time Institutional Investor All-Star for his coverage of Wireless Telecommunications Services.
Ken holds both a Bachelor of Science degree and an MBA from New York University. He was also licensed in the State of New Jersey as a Certified Public Accountant.

Kevin Huang is an equity research analyst and is primarily responsible for providing analytical coverage of several industries within health care, which includes biotechnology, medical devices, health care providers and services, and health care technology. His role involves keeping up-to-date with health care policy and regulation, industry trends, and technological advancements.

Prior to joining CFRA in 2016, Kevin worked at PricewaterhouseCoopers as a senior associate in Risk Assurance.

Kevin holds a BSBA in Finance and Accounting from the Olin Business School, Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. He is also a CFA Charterholder.

Colin Scarola is a senior analyst at CFRA. His responsibilities include fundamentalresearch and recommending equity investments within the Health Care sector, with emphasis on the pharmaceutical supply chain, health plan providers, and the life sciences industry.

Before joining CFRA in 2018, Colin spent three years as an investment analyst in real estate private equity with Pennybacker Capital in Austin, Texas. He transitioned into the investment field following four years as a mechanical engineer within the building automation and aerospace industries.

Colin has completed the CFA curriculum and holds an undergraduate degree from the University of Notre Dame, earning a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering, cum laude. He also holds a Master of Science in Finance from The University of Texas at Austin, where he graduated at the top of his class.

Chris Kuiper is a senior equity analyst at CFRA, conducting fundamental analysis and valuation assessments within the Consumer Finance, Capital Markets, and REITs areas.

Prior to joining CFRA in 2017, Chris worked as an analyst for a large-cap value fund. Chris also worked as a fundamental analyst for Calamos Investments, and a credit analyst for TCF Bank. He also previously worked as a research fellow for the Mercatus Center, a research center at George Mason University, where he wrote and published on public policy issues.

Chris holds a bachelor’s degree from Dordt College and a master’s degree in economics from George Mason University. Chris Kuiper holds the Chartered Financial Analyst designation.

Stewart Glickman is head of the Energy sector team and senior equity analyst at CFRA. He is responsible for analytical coverage of the Energy sector across the value chain. Stewart has held the positions of Sector Head of the Energy and Materials teams and Industry Analyst for S&P Global Market Intelligence.

Prior to joining S&P Global, Stewart worked in strategic consulting with Monitor Company and in economic consulting with Law and Economics Consulting Group and National Economic Research Associates, Inc.

Stewart holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from the University of Western Ontario, a Master of Arts degree in Economics from the University of Victoria, and an MBA in Finance and Accounting from the Stern School of Business at New York University. Stewart is a CFA charterholder.

Paige Meyer is an equity research analyst at CFRA. She is responsible for providing differentiated and actionable research and recommendations on equities in the Energy and Utility sectors. Paige’s areas of focus include: exploration and production, energy equipment and services, drilling, midstream, and gas utilities. She also authors two top-down industry primers: Energy Equipment & Services, and Gas Utilities.

Prior to joining CFRA in 2017, Paige gained her broad experience in the integrated oil and gas industry, working for Royal Dutch Shell. She had the opportunity to work across multiple business lines, including the upstream (onshore natural gas production), downstream (refinery), and global trading businesses.

Paige also has experience in consulting, focusing on credit risk.Paige holds a Bachelor of Business Administration degree from University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business.

Tim is a forensic equity analyst, covering Asia-Pacific compannies. Tim is responsible for helping CFRA’s clients better understand underappreciated differences between financial results and underlying economic reality. Tim joined CFRA as a member CFRA’s bespoke research team, and after spending a little over a year with this team, he transitioned to CFRA’s proactive idea generation team.

Prior to joining CFRA in 2017, Tim spent four years at KPMG in their Deal Advisory and Audit practices. Tim holds a master’s degree in Accounting and a B.S. in Business from Ohio State University. He is also a CFA and a licensed CPA.

David Ibbeken is CFRA’s General Counsel overseeing the company’s legal, regulatory and compliance matters.
David joined CFRA in 2016 having previously served as Assistant General Counsel for S&P Global Market Intelligence, and as Senior Counsel for SNL Financial immediately prior thereto, where he handled a wide variety of legal matters.
David graduated from the University of Virginia with a BA in Economics and holds a JD from the University of Virginia School of Law.

Giles Flower is head of global institutional sales, where he is responsible for the having the right team in place to reach our new business targets. This includes managing sales teams in North America, Europe and Asia, and ensuring they have strong pipelines to reach targets. In addition, Giles is responsible for managing his own sales territory in EMEA.
Prior to joining CFRA in 2011, Giles worked for 10 years on the sell side at Collins Stewart (now Canaccord Genuity) in sales and analyst roles within their Quest team.
Giles holds a Bachelors of Arts (Hons) degree from Kingston University, London.

Mike Down is Head of Global Account Management at CFRA. He is responsible for leading a global team of dedicated account managers to deliver best-in-class service for CFRA clients, developing the go-to-market strategy for client accounts, and driving user adoption of CFRA research.

Prior to joining CFRA, Mike served as the Director of Client Services and a member of the Senior Management Team at SNL Financial before the firm was acquired by McGraw-Hill in 2015. Following the acquisition, he built a Global Renewal Operations Team at S&P Global to facilitate a shift to avalue-based commercial pricing model, and led successful Relationship Management Teams in the non-financial Corporate client segment.

Mike holds aBachelor of Science, Business Administration from the University of Vermont, and a Master of Business Administration from Union College, with a concentration in Finance and International Business.

Matthew is Vice President of Equity Research at CFRA. He is responsible for providing differentiated and actionable research and recommendations on equities in the Materials and Industrials sectors. Matthew’s areas of focus include: metals & mining, construction materials, containers & packaging, and building products. Matthew previously held the position of Industry/Equity Analyst at S&P Global Market Intelligence.

Matthew joined CFRA in 2016 and S&P Global in 2014, after working on the buy-side as an Equity Analyst at London Capital Management in London, Canada, where he covered North American stocks in the Energy and Consumer Staples sectors. Prior to joining the equity research industry, Matthew worked as a Financial Analyst for companies in both the retail and fitness areas.

Matthew holds his Bachelor of Business Administration degree from Colorado State University and his MBA from Concordia University in Montreal, Canada. He is also a CFA charterholder.

John is Vice President of Equity Research. He joined CFRA in April 2019. He is responsible for fundamental equity research and analysis covering several segments within the Information Technology and Communication Services sectors, including enterprise software and SaaS/cloud providers, Internet advertising/social media platforms, and game developers.

Prior to joining CFRA, John co-founded Samadhi Capital Partners, an investment advisor and equity research firm where he developed an investment process and framework targeted at tech sector equities, with a particular emphasis on gauging the impact of and identifying the long-term winners from artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, neural networks, and related developments categorized under the larger “cognification of software” mega-trend. Before his entrepreneurial stint, he served as Senior Analyst and Portfolio Manager at Sands Capital Management, responsible for the firm’s investments within the tech sector.

John began his career in equity research with an independent equity research firm, Precursor, where he was ranked as the top analyst covering network equipment stocks among independent research firms. He also spent the first dozen years of his career in various roles within the tech industry. During this time, he published dozens of white papers and research reports on topics ranging from network processors, Virtual LAN (VLAN) technology, and the historical evolution of enterprise application architecture.

John graduated from Harvard University with a BA in East Asian Studies.

Chris Schenkkan is the head of Finance at CFRA, were he leads the company’s global financial affairs including statutory financial audits, budgeting/forecasting, tax compliance, monthly accounting closes, and accounts payable. Prior to joining CFRA in 2017, Chris was the Associate Director, Content Management at SNL Financial (now part of S&P Global) where he worked for twelve years to help the business scale to $250 million in revenues and over 3,000 employees.
Chris graduated from the University of Virginia with a BA in Economics and holds an MBA from the Darden School of Business, University of Virginia.
Jennifer Latz leads CFRA’s Forensic Research team and serves as a Senior Analyst on CFRA’s European Forensic Research team while also leading the Consumer/Retail research team.
Prior to joining CFRA in 2011, Jennifer worked in the New York office of Ziff Brothers Investments for 5 years. Before ZBI, Jennifer performed financial due diligence for KPMG's Transaction Services Group.
Jennifer holds a Masters in Professional Accounting from the University of Texas at Austin, and a B.A. from the University of Michigan.
Brendan McAuley is head of global wealth management sales. He leads a global team of senior salespeople tasked with establishing and growing relationships with key Registered Investment Advisory and Wealth Management firms, Banks and Broker/Dealers.
Brendan joined CFRA in 2015 and previously lead the CFRA’s Institutional Account Management team in the US, and continues to manage some of the firm’s largest relationships. Prior to CFRA, Brendan was a Director of Institutional Research Sales at Oppenheimer & Company and an Institutional Relationship Manager at Dreyfus Funds.
Brendan holds his MBA from University of North Carolina Chapel Hill and his BA in from Sacred Heart University.
Lili Mehta is head of global marketing at CFRA, responsible for developing and executing strategies to build the company's brand, generate leads, identify opportunities to reach new market segments, and expand market share. Prior to joining CFRA in 2018, Lili served as Executive Director Of Marketing at Institutional Shareholder Services Inc. (ISS) where she designed and implemented marketing strategies and programs to increase market penetration across institutional investor market segments globally. Prior to serving in that role, Lili served as an independent marketing consultant for several large and high-profile B2B organizations, providing product and strategic marketing services under long term consulting engagements.
Lili graduated from Virginia Tech with a Bachelor of Science and holds an MBA from George Washington University.
Beth Piskora heads editorial operations for CFRA. She serves as the editorial director for CFRA’s MarketScope Advisor website, as well as CFRA publications like The Outlook (an investment-oriented website and weekly newsletter) and Industry Surveys (extensive reports on several dozen industries). Beth and the Editorial team review and vet all equity analyst-written content to ensure high-quality standards. In addition, Beth works closely with colleagues in Research, Technology, Sales & Marketing and Finance to brainstorm new content initiatives and bring them to fruition.
Earlier in her career, Beth was an award-winning business reporter/investing columnist for the New York Post, the oldest daily newspaper in the U.S. Beth started her editorial career as a reporter for the American Banker, a daily trade newspaper.
Beth holds a B.A. in Communications from The Pennsylvania State University.
Ishtmeet is the Vice President of Engineering at CFRA where he defines technology strategy and leads the application and infrastructure teams to build cutting edge tools for CFRA’s analysts.
Prior to joining CFRA in 2019, Ishtmeet has worked in various companies like Amazon, Capital One and Fannie Mae as Senior Technology executive. In his prior role as Vice President of Software Engineering at Gannett Co Inc, he led the digital content technology group. In this role he had overall responsibility for defining technology strategy and executing business alignment by delivering software solutions. This including an in-house SAAS content management solutions used by 100+ Gannett Newspapers across the nation. In addition to his prior company experiences, Ishtmeet also served as Captain in the Indian Army for six years.
Ishtmeet graduated from MGM College of Engineering in Nanded, India with BE in Computer Sciences and holds an MBA in Finance from Stern School of Business, New York University.
Will Suess is a senior quantitative analyst and head of the quantitative research for CFRA. Will joined CFRA in April 2018 after leading quantitative strategy for a Registered Investment Advisor and a Long-Short Equity Hedge Fund. Prior to that, Will served as a consultant to quantitative institutional investors to develop alpha and risk models. Will graduated from the University of Iowa with a B.B.A in Finance and Economics. Will is a CFA Charterholder.
Aniket Ullal is VP, ETF Data and Analytics for CFRA, one of the world’s largest providers of independent investment research. Aniket founded First Bridge Data, a leading source for global ETF data and analytics that was acquired by CFRA in August 2019. Prior to starting First Bridge, he had product management responsibility for S&P’s US indices, including the widely followed S&P 500 and S&P/Case-Shiller indices. These indices have over $1Trillion in ETF assets tracking them. Aniket is the author of 'ETF Investment Strategies' (McGraw-Hill; 2013). He is a graduate of Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management and the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad.
David is CFRA’s General Counsel overseeing the company’s legal, regulatory and compliance matters. David served previously as Assistant General Counsel for S&P Global Market Intelligence, and as Senior Counsel for SNL Financial immediately prior thereto, where he handled a wide variety of legal matters. David graduated from the University of Virginia with a BA in Economics and holds a JD from the University of Virginia School of Law.

Heather is the Global Head of Talent, driving Talent strategy and related matters across the globe. Heather was most recently the Senior Director of Human Resources at SNL Financial (now part of S&P Global) where she worked for approximately 19 years helping the business scale to $250 million in revenue and over 3,000 employees. Prior to filling the HR role at SNL, Heather worked as the Director of SNL’s Content Operations. Heather graduated from Mary Baldwin College with a BA in Business Administration.

Eram is the CTO and Chief Product officer at CFRA where he defines product strategy and leads technology innovation leveraging his 15 years of experience delivering commercially profitable client-centered solutions. Prior to joining CFRA, Eram was Senior Director of Commercial Solutions at Fitch Solutions for buy and sell-side markets. As Global Head of Desktop Product Development, he developed the strategy and launched the flagship Fitch Connect Web and Excel platform that accounted for over $100M of revenue targeting counterparty credit and credit markets. Prior to Fitch, Eram held product development roles at S&P Global and other information services firms. Eram graduated from Washington University in Saint Louis with a BS in Marketing & Strategy and holds an MA in Cognitive Science from Teacher’s College, Columbia University.

Sam Stovall is Chief Investment Strategist of U.S. Equity Strategy at CFRA. He serves as analyst, publisher and communicator of CFRA’s outlooks for the economy, market, and sectors. Sam is the Chairman of the CFRA Investment Policy Committee, where he focuses on market history and valuations, as well as industry momentum strategies. He is the author of The Standard & Poor’s Guide to Sector Investing and The Seven Rules of Wall Street. In addition, Sam writes a weekly investment piece, featured on CFRA’s MarketScope Advisor platform and his work is also found in the flagship weekly newsletter The Outlook.

Prior to joining S&P Global in 1989 and CFRA in 2016, Sam served as Editor In Chief at Argus Research, an independent investment research firm in New York City.

He holds an MBA in Finance from New York University and a B.A. in History/Education from Muhlenberg College, in Allentown, PA. He is a CFP® certificant and is a Trustee of the Securities Industry Institute®, the executive development program held annually at The Wharton School of The University of Pennsylvania.

Follow Sam on Twitter: @StovallCFRA

Todd Rosenbluth is Senior Director of ETF and Mutual Fund Research at CFRA where he leads the firm’s holdings-based research efforts within the Equity Research and Fund group. Todd publishes regular thought leadership content on equity and fixed income products, maintains the quantitative fund models and supports client needs. He also serves as a member of Portfolio Strategy Committee and the Investment Policy Committee. Todd also held the position of Senior Director of ETF and Mutual Fund Research for S&P Global Market Intelligence.

Prior to joining CFRA, Todd previously served in other financial positions at S&P Global, such as International Mutual Fund Sector Specialist, Large Cap Value and Large Cap Growth Analyst and has served on the Fund Services Asset Allocation Committee. Prior to joining S&P Global in 2001, Todd was managing editor of Value Line Mutual Fund Survey and Senior Large Cap and Small Cap Value Mutual Fund Analyst. He was also a Financial Advisor with Morgan Stanley.

Todd holds a B.G.S in Finance from the University of Michigan and an MBA in Finance from New York University.

Follow Todd on Twitter at: @ToddCFRA

Lindsey Bell is an Investment Strategist at CFRA. Along with the Chief Investment Officer, she determines CFRA’s asset class allocation and equity sector level recommendations. She participates in projecting the firm’s 12-month S&P 500 price target. Her market observations and sector opinions are expressed in regular writings on CFRA’s MarketScope Advisor (MSA) platform. She oversees CFRA’s portfolio management committee which manages five portfolios of stocks. Finally, she also assists in authoring monthly European and Asian Investment Policy Committee (IPC) notes, also available on MSA. She is a frequent guest on FoxBusiness, CNBC, Bloomberg and Yahoo! Finance, etc.

Prior to joining CFRA, Lindsey worked as an Investment Strategist with S&P Global within the Investment Advisory Services division. She worked in several different capacities at TheStreet.com before that, from helping to manage Jim Cramer’s small and mid-cap Charitable Trusts, to leading trader blog conversations and writing research. She learned the ropes as an equity research analyst at J.P Morgan and Deutsche Bank covering retail companies, and began her career in investment banking with Jefferies & Company’s Mergers & Acquisition group.

Follow Lindsey on Twitter: @LBellCFRA

Tuna is Director & Industry Analyst at CFRA. He is responsible for general oversight of the firm’s Consumer sector strategy and recommendations by a team of equity analysts, for hundreds of securities. He covers companies in the Internet Retail universe such as Amazon and Netflix, as well as media companies such as CBS, Comcast and Disney. Tuna previously held a similar position at S&P Global Market Intelligence where he led a core team that created and implemented a proprietary S&P Core Earnings® framework, also serving on the firm’s Analytical Policy Board. He currently authors a biannual industry survey called “Media”.

Prior to joining CFRA and S&P Global, Tuna was a Senior Equity Analyst at Lehman Brothers, New York. He participated in key decisions by the firm’s Investment Policy Committee and was highly instrumental in managing a multi-capitalization equity portfolio, with primary focus on the Technology, Media and Telecom (TMT) sectors. Tuna also gained extensive global consulting experience in his previous roles at Arthur Andersen and KPMG.

Tuna earned an MBA in Finance from the Strathclyde University Business School in Scotland, U.K. He also holds a B.Sc. in Accounting from University of Nigeria as well as LL.B. (JD). Tuna is a CFA charterholder and a Certified Public Accountant (CPA).

Peter is the CEO at CFRA where he is responsible for the global strategic leadership of the firm. Peter acquired CFRA in March 2013. Previously he was Executive Managing Director at S&P Global. Prior to this role, Peter was Executive Director at Morgan Stanley and Vice President at JPMorgan where he helped develop leading Financial Technology investment banking practices. In addition, Peter was Vice President with LabMorgan, a JPMorgan venture capital division investing in financial information and technology companies. Peter graduated from Union College with a BA in Economics and holds an MBA in Finance and Entrepreneurial Management from The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.

Theresa is the CFO & COO at CFRA, leading the company’s global financial and operational affairs. Theresa was most recently the Senior Director of Finance, Corporate Controller for SNL Financial (now part of S&P Global) where she worked for approximately ten years in helping the business to scale to $250 million in revenues and over 3,000 employees. Prior to SNL Financial, she was Director of Business Management with LexisNexis and a Consulting Manager with Grant Thornton LLP. Theresa graduated from the University of Virginia with a BA in Mathematics and holds an MBA from the Raymond A. Mason School of Business, William & Mary.

Dan is the Chief Revenue Officer of CFRA where he oversees the company's global sales and marketing efforts. He has over 20 years of experience in sales management, team building and partner development including roles as the Executive Vice President of Sales and Marketing at WealthEngine and CEO of GMI Ratings, an independent provider of global corporate governance, forensic accounting and ESG ratings and research. As CEO, Dan led the company to a successful exit for shareholders through a sale to strategic acquirer, MSCI, Inc. He also served as Executive Vice President of Sales & Marketing for Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) where he helped significantly increase revenues and actively participated in the sale to RiskMetrics Group (now part of MSCI, Inc.). Dan graduated from the University of Maryland and holds an MBA from Baruch College.

Zach is President at CFRA, overseeing the firm's intellectual property and client activities including research, analytics, data, client coverage, and marketing. He previously served as Global Head of Research at the company from 2015-2019 as well as Head of the Financial Institutions Research team. Prior to returning to CFRA in 2013, Zach was with Paulson & Co. and Paulson Europe where he covered financial institutions globally. He has worked in microfinance internationally and testified before the U.S. House and Senate on small business lending and development. Zach graduated from Brown University with BAs in Political Science and Italian Studies and holds an MBA from the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University. He is a CFA charterholder.

“I really enjoy helping clients uncover risks in their investment decisions, and thereby save money.”

What makes CFRA special?
People…even though I don’t get to work with everyone in our office as we expand and offer more products, I truly feel we are all on the same team, working towards the same goal of keeping our clients first in all that we do, by collaborating with each other to produce the best quality products that add value to our clients.

What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
Clients…Helping clients uncover risks in their investment decisions and thereby save money. It is really fun to uncover situations where management of public companies are trying to mislead investors.

Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
People…I enjoy the work that I do, but more importantly I enjoy working and collaborating with our team.

“At CFRA, the degree of freedom and flexibility in conducting research, coupled with the emphasis on integrity, performance and excellence, provides a healthy working environment which encourages collaboration, analytical rigor and a continuous drive for incremental improvement, while remaining cognizant of the need for work-life balance.”

What makes CFRA special?
Having worked with a large multinational corporation for close to a decade, I can testify that CFRA feels a lot more close-knit, where what each and every individual does is important and plays a part in the overall direction of the business. As we continue to grow, I believe it is very important to maintain this aspect of who we are.

What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
Even after being in research for close to 15 years, I'm happy to find that there will always be new things to learn on a daily basis, new ways of doing things, new challenges to tackle, whether strictly in research or in the day-to-day management of CFRA Malaysia.

Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
I think the degree of freedom and flexibility in conducting research, coupled with the emphasis on integrity, performance and excellence, provides a healthy working environment which encourages collaboration, analytical rigor and a continuous drive for incremental improvement, while remaining cognizant of the need for work-life balance.

“At CFRA, everyone shares the same values
and is dedicated to the mission…No egos, no politics.”

What makes CFRA special?
You always hear how first impression is the most important one. When I joined CFRA some 18 months ago, it was in a midst of a large RFP in EMEA. We had extremely tight deadline and very complex proposal to make. I was new, nobody knew me and I needed a lot of support. I am still amazed how everyone came together to help. Every department pitched in and went for that famous extra mile to meet the deadline. Still today, there is not a one single person I could not reach out to if I need help. In essence, that is what makes CFRA special.

What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
Independence. I am given the goals and know exactly how I’m measured, but I have the autonomy over my responsibilities and daily tasks.

Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
Everyone shares the same values and is dedicated to the mission. Many companies talk about breaking down their silos, but here people do whatever it takes to get the job done – even if it’s not written in their job description. No egos, no politics. This is a first for me.

“What makes CFRA unique is the delicate balance of skepticism, curiosity and conviction that we experience throughout the company.”

What makes CFRA special?
The diversity of views (both long and short) across the company, which drives prudent decisions free of bias. A rarity in our business.

What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
That the delicate balance of skepticism, curiosity and conviction can often be rewarded if correctly executed.

Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
What makes your days at CFRA different than other jobs you have had?
At CFRA, your opinions and suggestions go further, which was something I had not experienced when working at larger corporations.

“At CFRA, there’s an infectious intellectual
curiosity that permeates the
corporate culture.”

What makes CFRA special?
CFRA has the best corporate culture I’ve experienced in my long career, and it cascades down from the CEO to all employees. There’s a pride and a tireless purpose to be the best, but never at the expense of integrity.

What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
My favorite part of my job is heading analyst training. We host several training sessions each quarter on exciting topics like effective research writing, statistical analysis, valuation, and complex forensic accounting. And while we bring in external resources when needed, we have so many highly accomplished professionals and academics working at CFRA that enjoy cross-pollinating skills to other employees.

Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
That’s a tough question. I think one of the reasons I’ve been working as a research analyst for nearly 20 years is that every day is different.

“As a smaller company, everyone at CFRA is willing to wear whatever hat is needed on any given day, and do it well.”

What makes CFRA special?
There are numerous things, but one that stands out to me is the people. As a smaller company, everyone is willing to wear whatever hat is needed on any given day and do it well. I like the relaxed atmosphere combined with the fact that everyone is willing and able to buckle down when necessary. And, I think that’s embodied in our corporate culture where integrity and excellence are the expectation.

What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
A couple items. First, I really am thankful to be able to apply my education directly into my work. That has not always been the case in my career. Second, I’ve really enjoyed leading the financial audit process across all of our entities with our external auditors. It’s been a great learning process and has allowed me to develop a keener understanding of our financials across the company.

Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
I work more closely with the senior management team on a more consistent basis. The insight into corporate strategy, goals, and performance has been welcome from a knowledge, understanding, and alignment perspective.

“At CFRA we all work toward the same vision and goals.”
What makes CFRA special?
A true sense of vision and goals permeates through the entire organization.
What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
Creating and reinventing Industry Surveys and the Outlook newsletter provides immediate feedback and personal/professional satisfaction.
Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
Editing and collaborating with my editorial teammates for our Outlook issue takes up parts of my day; however, moving our 8-9 monthly surveys forward to an on-time delivery takes up a great deal of the day.

“Our truly independent research sets up apart from all of our competitors”
What makes CFRA special?
Differentiation, Quality and Independence – The CFRA product differentiation and quality makes the firm so special and superior versus the competition. While having spent many years previously on the sell side, I have learned that the true independence of the CFRA research is what really sets us apart.
What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
Meeting so many intelligent and varied people. There are so many different cultures and styles both internally at CFRA and externally, that I am always learning something new.
Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
There is no typical day, which is what keeps me so focused. My job has so much variety, from sales, account management, team management, client and prospect meetings, and much more. It keeps me fresh and excited for the next day.
“At CFRA, the team works as one and encourages each other, instead of competing with each other. We come together and do what’s best for our clients.”
What makes CFRA special?
Even when I started and CFRA was a very small division of a much smaller company, there was always a team aspect to CFRA that meant we would all work together to accomplish the task. While the team is bigger today than it was then, we’re all working to get the best research and ideas out to clients, not competing with each other for who can be best.
What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
I like the varied topics that I can cover—one day, I may be working on antitrust issues in a major merger, the next a contract dispute, and the day after that a patent infringement case.
Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
I frequently spend my time reading court filings, transcripts, and other documents, then writing analysis for clients. Other times, I’m talking to clients on the phone or in person, or attending court or administrative proceedings, sometimes as the only member of the public present.
“Everyone is empowered to be a stakeholder in CFRA's success.”
What makes CFRA special?
Entrepreneurial culture with great professionals to drive quality and growth for the firm. Everyone is empowered to be a stakeholder in CFRA's success.
What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
Finding a new research idea on industry trends or company drivers that can be vetted with CFRA's forensic and industry analysts.
Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
As an early bird to our New York office, I am multitasking in a variety of areas that covers my own research coverage, collaborating with other equity analysts or market strategists, responding to customer research requests, participating in sponsored webcasts, mentoring other analysts, partnering with sales and marketing, and handling media activity.

“I feel that curiosity is encouraged at CFRA, and I am motivated by the expertise of my peers.”
What makes CFRA special?
The culture, values, and people at CFRA represent a company that I am proud to work for. One of my favorite aspects of research is that there are always additional insights to discover. I feel that curiosity is encouraged, and I am motivated by the expertise of my peers.
What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
The opportunity to engage with such an expansive coverage universe on the Bespoke Team. Each project is different, and we get to collaborate with internal industry experts to gain and share insights.
Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
Each day is different depending on the stage of the research process, but usually entails diving deep into financial analysis and qualitative review of public-facing companies and sharing interesting findings with the team.
“There’s never a dull moment here at CFRA. The market is always changing and creating new opportunities each day.”
What makes CFRA special?
We are an independent research firm, meaning we can bring forth our best ideas with integrity, knowing that our interests are aligned with that of our clients. Also, the people at CFRA are great to work with.
What’s your favorite aspect of your job?
The energy of the markets – always keeps you on your toes.
Can you describe your typical day at CFRA?
There is no typical day. The markets re-value stocks every day, creating new opportunities. Each day brings unique challenges, with new data and news to consider in our theses.
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