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The data and information included in bond reports (the “Bond Report” and/or “Research Reports”) are generated by quantitative research models. Bond Reports may contain ratings data and analysts’ commentaries from S&P Global Ratings, an affiliate of S&P Global Market Intelligence, a division of S&P Global Inc. When using this report, investors are advised to consult the accompanying glossary of investment terms. Bond Reports are prepared by Accounting Research & Analytics, LLC d/b/a CFRA, which is not affiliated with S&P Global Ratings and/or S&P Global Inc. Bond Reports are generally updated on a daily basis.
In general the bond market is volatile, and fixed income securities carry interest rate risk. Investments are subject to investment risks including the possible loss of the principal amount invested. Bond investments may be subject, but not limited, to the following investment risks:
Credit and default risk – Corporate bonds are subject to credit risk. It’s important to pay attention to changes in the credit quality of the issuer, as less creditworthy issuers may be more likely to default on interest payments or principal repayment. If a bond issuer fails to make either a coupon or principal payment when they are due, or fails to meet some other provision of the bond indenture, it is said to be in default.
Market risk – Price volatility of corporate bonds increases with the length of the maturity and decreases as the size of the coupon increases. Changes in credit rating can also affect prices. If one of the major rating services lowers its credit rating for a particular issue, the price of that security usually declines.
Event risk – A bond’s payments are dependent on the issuer’s ability to generate cash flow. Unforeseen events could impact their ability to meet those commitments.
Call risk – Many corporate bonds are callable, which means they can be redeemed or paid off at the issuer’s discretion prior to maturity. Typically an issuer will call a bond when interest rates fall below the coupon rate potentially leaving investors with a loss in income and less favorable reinvestment options. Prior to purchasing a corporate bond, determine whether call provisions exist. An investors should ensure that the yield he/she is quoted includes the yield to the worst case in the event of a call.
Sector risk – Corporate bond issuers fall into four main sectors: industrial, financial, utilities, and transportation. Bonds in these economic sectors can be affected by a range of factors, including corporate events, consumer demand, changes in the economic cycle, changes in regulation, interest rate and commodity volatility, changes in overseas economic conditions, and currency fluctuations. Understanding the degree to which each sector can be influenced by these factors is the first step toward building a diversified bond portfolio.
Interest rate risk – If interest rates rise, the price of existing bonds usually declines. That’s because new bonds are likely to be issued with higher yields as interest rates increase, making the old or outstanding bonds less attractive. If interest rates decline, however, bond prices usually increase, which means an investor can sometimes sell a bond for more than they paid or a premium to face value, since other investors are willing to pay a premium for a bond with a higher interest payment. The longer a bond’s maturity, the greater the impact a change in interest rates can have on its price. If you’re holding a bond until maturity, interest rate risk is not a concern.
Government securities risk – The U.S. Treasury only backs in full all some obligations of the U.S. government, its agencies and instrumentalities. Some obligations are backed only by the credit of the issuing agency or instrumentality, and in some cases there may be some risk of default by the issuer. The U.S. government or its agencies or instrumentalities cannot guarantee the market value of a security, only the timely payment of interest and principal when held to maturity. U.S government securities may increase or decrease in value based on global demand and changes in global economic conditions affect the demand for these securities.
Municipal securities risk – Public information available about municipal securities is in general limited and less available than that for corporate equities or bonds. Special factors, such as legislative changes, and state and local economic and business developments, may adversely affect the yield and/or value of the bond investments in municipal securities. Investments in municipal projects of a municipality or a state may impact the bond”s value, if economic, business or political conditions change for the municipality or state.
Foreign risk – In addition to the risks mentioned above, there are additional considerations for bonds issued by foreign governments and corporations. These bonds can experience greater volatility, due to increased political, regulatory, market, or economic risks. These risks are usually more pronounced in emerging markets.
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Previously, Ahmad held the position of Senior Research Manager and Industry Analyst with S&P Global Market Intelligence. Prior to joining CFRA in 2016 and S&P Global in 2008, Ahmad worked on the sell-side as an Equity Analyst at Nomura Securities and Deutsche Bank, covering a wide range of industries including utilities, transportation, plantation, properties, and oil & gas companies.
Ahmad holds a Bachelor of Laws (Hons) degree from City, University of London. He is also a CFA charterholder.
Prior to joining the firm, Nick was a litigator and corporate governance counselor at Wilson Sonsini Goodrich and Rosati, a Palo Alto, CA technology sector-focused law firm, and Jenner & Block in Chicago, IL, and a merger arbitrage and special situations analyst at a multi-strategy hedge fund, where he performed merger antitrust, litigation, SEC Enforcement, and regulatory risk assessments, and fundamental analysis. Nick has appeared on CNBC and has been quoted in Barron's, Bloomberg, The New York Times, and other major publications.
Nick holds a Juris Doctor degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Prior to joining S&P Global in 1989 and CFRA in 2016, Sam served as Editor In Chief at Argus Research, an independent investment research firm in New York City.
He holds an MBA in Finance from New York University and a B.A. in History/Education from Muhlenberg College, in Allentown, PA. He is a CFP® certificant and is a Trustee of the Securities Industry Institute®, the executive development program held annually at The Wharton School of The University of Pennsylvania.
Follow Sam on Twitter: @StovallCFRA
Prior to joining CFRA, Todd previously served in other financial positions at S&P Global, such as International Mutual Fund Sector Specialist, Large Cap Value and Large Cap Growth Analyst and has served on the Fund Services Asset Allocation Committee. Prior to joining S&P Global in 2001, Todd was managing editor of Value Line Mutual Fund Survey and Senior Large Cap and Small Cap Value Mutual Fund Analyst. He was also a Financial Advisor with Morgan Stanley.
Todd holds a B.G.S in Finance from the University of Michigan and an MBA in Finance from New York University.
Follow Todd on Twitter at: @ToddCFRA
Prior to joining CFRA, Lindsey worked as an Investment Strategist with S&P Global within the Investment Advisory Services division. She worked in several different capacities at TheStreet.com before that, from helping to manage Jim Cramer’s small and mid-cap Charitable Trusts, to leading trader blog conversations and writing research. She learned the ropes as an equity research analyst at J.P Morgan and Deutsche Bank covering retail companies, and began her career in investment banking with Jefferies & Company’s Mergers & Acquisition group.
Follow Lindsey on Twitter: @LBellCFRA
Prior to joining CFRA and S&P Global, Tuna was a Senior Equity Analyst at Lehman Brothers, New York. He participated in key decisions by the firm’s Investment Policy Committee and was highly instrumental in managing a multi-capitalization equity portfolio, with primary focus on the Technology, Media and Telecom (TMT) sectors. Tuna also gained extensive global consulting experience in his previous roles at Arthur Andersen and KPMG.
Tuna earned an MBA in Finance from the Strathclyde University Business School in Scotland, U.K. He also holds a B.Sc. in Accounting from University of Nigeria as well as LL.B. (JD). Tuna is a CFA charterholder and a Certified Public Accountant (CPA).